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See list of 11 genera in this family

Callibrachoa parviflora (Juss.) D’Arcy was reported from CT, MA, ME, NH, and RI by Magee and Ahles (1999). However, the report was erroneous given that this species has not been collected in New England, and the authors included as a synonym Petunia integrifolia (which is a distinct taxon belonging to another genus). Magee and Ahles (1999) also reported Solandra grandiflora Sw. for CT; however, the voucher specimens (at CONN) were taken from cultivated plants (i.e., Solandra grandiflora is not naturalized in New England).

  • 1a. Inflorescences (2–) 3- to many-flowered, with both peduncles and pedicels (note: the inflorescence is leafy-bracteate in Hyoscyamus) [Figs. 910,911,915]
  • 1b. Inflorescence consisting of solitary flowers in the axils of leaves (rarely in pairs or trios), with only pedicels, the peduncles absent or obsolete [Fig. 909]
    • 6a. One anther conspicuously smaller than the other 4; calyx connate only at the very base; leaves opposite; fruit a 2-valved capsule;
    • 6b. All 5 anthers of similar size; calyx connate at least half its length (connate only near the base in Nicandra, but then each sepal with 2 basal auricles); leaves alternate or falsely appearing opposite in some genera; fruit a berry or 4-valved capsule
      • 7a. Flowers 7–24 cm long; fruit berry-like capsule armed with long, soft prickles, with 
4 locules (at least in the basal portion), solitary on the stem
      • 7b. Flowers 0.6–2.5 cm long (15–20 cm long in Solandra, but then each of the 5 corolla lobes crenate); fruit a 2-locular berry (with 3–5 locules in Nicandra), usually more than 
1 per stem (solitary in Nicandra)
        • 8a. Calyx connate only at the very base, each sepal with 2 basal auricles; corolla 20–25 mm long; gynoecium with 3–5 carpels
        • 8b. Calyx connate at least half its length, the sepals lacking basal auricles; corolla 6–20 mm long; gynoecium with 2 carpels
          • 9a. Plants woody, usually armed with thorns; corolla blue to purple; leaves borne on petioles 3–10 mm long, the blades with entire margins
          • 9b. Plants herbaceous, unarmed; corolla yellow to white; principal leaves either borne on petioles longer than 10 mm or the blades toothed or both
            • 10a. Fruiting calyx usually inflated and larger than the berry it contains [Fig. 912], essentially closed at the apical end, membranaceous to scarious, often with 10 prominent ribs; corolla campanulate to open-campanulate
            • 10b. Fruiting calyx not inflated, filled by the berry it contains, open at the apical end, herbaceous, without prominent ribs; corolla ± rotate

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.