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See list of 6 genera in this family
  • 1a. Indusium inferior, composed of lacerate or filamentous segments at maturity; veins not reaching margin of leaf segments, ending in hydathodes near the margin [Fig. 40]; petioles articulated near base, this recognizable as a small, swollen node (not articulated in W. obtusa)
  • 1b. Indusium absent or present, sometimes inconspicuous, superior when present, attached centrally or laterally, not divided; veins reaching margin of leaf segments [Fig. 36]; petioles not articulated near base
    • 2a. Indusium absent; leaf blades triangular to pentagonal [Fig. 39]; rhizome long and slender; leaflets weakly articulated to rachis; basal leaflets noticeably larger than next-apical pair
    • 2b. Indusium present, though inconspicuous in Cystopteris; leaf blades lanceolate to triangular; rhizome relatively short; leaflets not articulated to rachis; basal leaflets not or only slightly larger than next-apical pair
      • 3a. Indusium ovate to lanceolate, short, inconspicuous, attached laterally and arched over sorus; vascular bundles at the base of the petiole round or oblong in cross-section
      • 3b. Indusium linear, hooked at one end, or horseshoe-shaped, elongate, evident; vascular bundles at the base of the petiole lunate in cross-section
        • 4a. Sori hooked at one end, some crossing the veinlets [Fig. 34]; indument of rachis and costae usually of stipitate glands (rarely indument absent)
        • 4b. Sori straight or slightly falcate, not crossing the veinlets [Fig. 38]; indument of rachis and costae absent or of septate hairs only
          • 5a. Leaf blade 1.5- to 2-times divided; petiole with 2 rows of sharp or blunt marginal teeth on the swollen base (note: this feature absent in many collections but visible in the field)
          • 5b. Leaf blade once divided; petiole base lacking marginal teeth

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.